GST E-Way Bill – All You Need To Know

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E-way bill is an electronic document generated on the GST portal evidencing the movement of goods. It has two Components – Part A & Part B:
  • Part A comprises of details of GSTIN of the recipient, place of delivery (PIN Code), invoice or challan number and date, the value of goods, HSN code, transport document number (Goods Receipt Number or Railway Receipt Number or Airway Bill Number or Bill of Lading Number) and reasons for transportation; and
  • Part B comprising of transporter details (Vehicle number)
When Is The E-Way Bill To Be Issued?

As per Rule 138 of the CGST Rules, 2017, every registered person who causes movement of goods of consignment value more than Rs. 50000/- is required to furnish above-mentioned information in part A of the e-way bill. Part B containing transport details helps in the generation of e-way bills. Movement of goods or consignment can be :

  • In relation to a supply
  • For reasons other than supply (eg: Return of goods)
  • Due to inward ‘supply’ from an unregistered person Further, supply can be made for
  • Consideration (payment) in the course of business
  • Consideration (payment) which may not be in the course of business
  • Without consideration

Exceptions to the above Rule
For certain specified Goods, the eWay Bill system needs to be generated mandatorily even if the value of the consignment of Goods is less than Rs. 50,000:

  • The goods are sent by a principal located in one State to a job worker located in any other State, the e-way bill shall be generated by the principal irrespective of the value of the consignment.
  • Handicraft goods are transported from one State to another by a person who has been exempted from the requirement of obtaining registration
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Who Is Required To Generate E-Way Bill?

eWay Bill is to be generated by the consignor or consignee himself, if the transportation is being done in own/hired conveyance or by railways by air or by vessel. If the goods are handed over to a transporter for transportation by road, eWay Bill is to be generated by the transporter. Where neither the consignor nor consignee generates the eWay Bill and the value of goods is more than Rs.50,000/- it shall be the responsibility of the transporter to generate it.

Cases Where E-Way Bill Is Not Required To Be Generated?

In the following cases it is not necessary to generate e-Way Bill:

  • The mode of transport is non-motor vehicle
  • Goods transported from Customs port, airport, air cargo complex or land customs station to Inland Container Depot (ICD) or Container Freight Station (CFS) for clearance by Customs.
  • Goods transported under Customs supervision or under customs seal
  • Goods transported under Customs Bond from ICD to Customs port or from one custom station to another.
  • Transit cargo transported to or from Nepal or Bhutan
  • Movement of goods caused by defence formation under Ministry of defence as a consignor or consignee
  • Empty Cargo containers are being transported
  • Consignor transporting goods to or from between place of business and a weighbridge for weighment at a distance of 20 kms, accompanied by a Delivery challan.
  • Goods being transported by rail where the Consignor of goods is the Central Government, State Governments or a local authority.
  • Goods specified as exempt from E-Way bill requirements in the respective State/Union territory GST Rules.
  • Transport of certain specified goods- Includes the list of exempt supply of goods, Annexure to Rule 138(14), goods treated as no supply as per Schedule III, Certain schedule to Central tax Rate notifications.
  • Note: Part B of eWay Bill is not required to be filled where the distance between the consigner or consignee and the transporter is less than 50 Kms and transport is within the same state.
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How Is E-Way Bill Generated?

An eWay Bill contains two parts- Part A to be furnished by the person who is causing movement of goods of consignment value exceeding Rs.50,000/- and Part B (Transport Details) to be furnished by the person who is transporting the goods. Where the goods are transported by a registered person whether as consignor or recipient, the said person shall have to generate the e-way bill by furnishing information in Part B on the GST common portal.

Where the eWay Bill is not generated by a registered person and the goods are handed over to the transporter for transportation by road, the registered person shall furnish the information relating to the transporter in Part B of FORM GST EWB-01 on the common portal and the e-way bill shall be generated by the transporter on the said portal on the basis of the information furnished by the registered person in Part A of FORM GST EWB-01.

A registered person may obtain an Invoice Reference Number from the common portal by uploading, on the said portal, a tax invoice issued by him in FORM GST INV-1 and produce the same for verification by the proper officer in lieu of the tax invoice and such number shall be valid for a period of thirty days from the date of uploading.

In the above case, the registered person will not have to upload the information in Part A of FORM GST EWB-01 for generation of e-way bill and the same shall be auto-populated by the common portal on the basis of the information furnished in FORM GST INV-1.

Upon generation of the e-way bill on the common portal, a unique e-way bill number (EBN) generated by the common portal, shall be made available to the supplier, the recipient, and the transporter on the common portal.

Documents Required For E-Way Bill Generation?
  • Invoice/ Bill of Supply/ Challan related to the consignment of goods
  • Transport by road – Transporter ID or Vehicle number
  • Transport by rail, air, or ship – Transporter ID, Transport document number, and date on the document
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Validity of e-Way Bill
An eWay Bill is valid for the duration as listed below, which is based on the distance travelled by the goods. Validity is calculated from the date and time of generation of e-Way Bill:

Type of conveyance Distance Validity of EWB 
Other than Over dimensional cargoLess Than 100 Km1 Day
For every additional 100 Kms or part thereofadditional 1 Day
For Over dimensional cargoLess Than 20 Km1 Day
For every additional 20 Kms or part thereofadditional 1 Day


Cancellation of eWay Bill
Where an eWay Bill has been generated under this rule, but goods are either not transported or are not transported as per the details furnished in the e-Way bill, then it may be cancelled electronically on the common portal, either directly or through a Facilitation Centre notified by the Commissioner, within 24 hours of generation of the Bill. However, an eWay Bill cannot be cancelled if it has been verified in transit in accordance with the provisions of rule 138B of the CGST Rules, 2017.

Consequences of non-conformance to e-Way Bill rules
If eWay Bill, wherever required, are not issued in accordance with the provisions contained in Rule 138 of the CGST Rules, 2017, the same will be considered as contravention of rules. As per Section 122 of the CGST Act, 2017, a taxable person who transports any taxable goods without the cover of specified documents (eWay Bill is one of the specified documents) shall be liable to a penalty of Rs.10,000/- or tax sought to be evaded (wherever applicable) whichever is greater.


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